Genus Aulacaspis

Cockerell, 1893

Appearance in life
Scale cover of adult female circular to slightly oval, more or less convex, white, with colourless to brown, subcentral to submarginal exuviae. Scale cover of immature male different from that of female; small and elongated, white, felted, tricarinate, with terminal exuviae.

Adult female not pupillarial; body elongate, often with prosoma, especially mesothorax, distinctly swollen and demarcated from metathorax by a constriction; prosomatic tubercles often pronounced, giving prosoma a quadrate appearance; but some species fusiform. Lateral lobes of abdominal segments I-III well developed, sometimes abdominal segment II wider than preceding segments; without marginal sclerotized spurs; rest of abdomen tapering to apex of pygidium. Derm initially membranous, prosoma or whole body often becoming sclerotized at maturity. Pygidium triangular or slightly rounded, often with a distinct apical notch formed by divergent median lobes. Median lobes usually well developed, zygotic, either divergent or set close together and parallel, without distinct marginal setae between the bases; apically rounded or finely serrated. Second lobes usually smaller than median lobes, bilobed, rounded at apices. Third lobes usually present, normally bilobed. Fourth lobes, if present, each represented by a single process. Small ventral paraphyses present in some species, arising from the angles of the inner lobule of the second lobe, usually converging anteriorly. Gland spines long and thick, absent from between the median lobes; usually present singly between the lobes, usually more numerous on margins of abdominal segments III and II, absent from further forward. Anus circular to slightly oval, usually situated at, or just anterior to, centre of pygidium; vulva often difficult to see, situated at, or just anterior to, centre of pygidium. Marginal macroducts larger than dorsal ducts, each orifice with the long axis perpendicular to the margin; usually associated with pore prominences or marginal serrations; usually numbering 7 on each side of the pygidium (1 between median and second lobe, 2 by third lobe, 2 on segment V and 2 on segment IV), absent from between median lobes. Dorsal macroducts almost as large as marginal ducts, arranged segmentally in well-defined rows; absent from segments VII or VIII; submarginal and submedian ducts present on segment V and some preceding segments, even as far forward as the metathorax; submedian ducts sometimes also present on segment VI; usually small macroducts present on lateral lobes of segments II and III but not on segment I; in some species the prosoma is scattered with dorsal ducts. Submarginal dorsal bosses usually present on either side of abdominal segment I. Perivulvar pores present in 5 large groups. Stigmatic disc pores present in a compact cluster by anterior spiracle; fewer pores present by posterior spiracle in most species. Antenna with 1 seta.