Salicicola archangelskyae

(Archangelskaya, 1930)

Adult female pupillarial. Scale cover of adult female in life sub-oval to pear- or mussel-shaped, 1.2-1.4 mm long, very convex, straight or slightly curved, pure white with pale yellow terminal exuviae (Balachowsky, 1953; Danzig, 1993); the wax layer may rub off to expose the brown second instar exuviae SALARL2.jpg . Scale cover of male oval, 0.7 mm long, pure white (Balachowsky, 1953).

Body of slide-mounted adult female elongate pyriform, less than twice as long as wide; antenna with 2-6 setae SALARS.jpg . Pygidium with vulva surrounded by obvious radiating cuticular folds, these extending over virtually all of pygidial venter SALARP.jpg . Second instar pygidium SALAR2I.jpg .

Host range
Salicicola archangelskiae has been recorded from hosts belonging to five plant families (Borchsenius, 1966). Preferred hosts are found in the family Rosaceae. Hosts include species of: Crataegus, Cydonia, Fraxinus, Juglans, Malus, Mespilus, Populus, Prunus, Pyrus, Punica and Syringa.

Affected plant stages: vegetative growing, flowering and fruiting stages

Affected plant parts: on bark of trunk and branches; sometimes on fruits of pear

Biology and ecology
Danzig, 1993, mentions that S. archangelskyae overwinters as adult females in the former USSR. Crawlers are the primary dispersal stage and move to new areas of the plant or are dispersed by wind or animal contact. Mortality due to abiotic factors is high in this stage. Dispersal of sessile adults and eggs occurs through human transport of infested plant material.

Economic impact
Salicicola archangelskyae was listed as a pest of deciduous fruit trees of regional importance by Kozár, 1990b, who said that it caused considerable damage, especially to pears, in Central Asia. Danzig, 1993, described S. archangelskyae as very damaging, especially on pear, apricot, peach and Fraxinus in the former USSR. Danzig and Pellizzari, 1998 describe it as a dangerous pest in the Palaearctic region. It has been recorded attacking pears in Afghanistan (Fowjhan and Kozár, 1994).

Detection and inspection methods
Examine the bark of trunk and branches of host-plants listed above, for sub-oval to pear-or mussel-shaped, very convex, straight or slightly curved, pure white scale covers, each with pale yellow terminal exuviae SALARL1.jpg and SALARL2.jpg .

Natural enemies

- Nectria aurantiicola, in Italy

See Salicicola archangelskyae distribution.

Microscopic examination of slide-mounted adult females is required for authoritative identification to species.

Salicicola archangelskyae is a Palaearctic species that may have been under-collected. It has not been recorded from much of Asia, much of Europe, Africa, the Western Hemisphere, Australia, or from the Pacific islands.

Former USSR
Armenia: present, no further details (Danzig, 1993)
Azerbaijan: present, no further details (Danzig, 1993)
Middle Asia: present, no further details (Danzig, 1993)
Transcaucasus: present, no further details (Danzig and Pellizzari, 1998)
Italy: present in the south (Longo et al., 1995)
Sicily: present, no further details (Longo et al., 1995)

Afghanistan: present, no further details (Fowjhan and Kozár, 1994)
Iran: present (Seghatoleslami, 1977; Danzig, 1993)
Iraq: present, no further details (Danzig, 1993; Danzig and Pellizzari, 1998)