Radionaspis indica

(Marlatt, 1908)

Adult female pupillarial. Scale cover of adult female in life 0.5-1.0 mm long, minute, convex and seed-like, compressed at tip; second instar exuviae brown but covered by a cottony wax-like secretion; first instar exuviae terminal RADINDL1.jpg and RADINDL2.jpg and RADINL.jpg . Scale cover of male elongate, 0.8-1.0 mm long, dirty white with terminal exuviae covered by secretion (Dekle, 1976) RADINL.jpg .

Exuviae of second instar brown and sclerotized, with hinged dorsal valve on pygidium RADI2IP2.jpg . Body of slide-mounted adult female elongate oval, membranous, antennae each with one seta RADINS.jpg ; pygidium fringed with low prominences interspersed with about 6 longer, membranous processes; macroducts absentRADINP.jpg . On Mangifera indica.

Host range
Radionaspis indica has been recorded from hosts belonging to the plant family Anacardiaceae, genus Mangifera (Borchsenius, 1966) including M. indica; it has also been recorded on Annona muricata and Bidens pilosa.

Affected plant stages: vegetative growing, flowering and fruiting stages

Affected plant parts: on the bark RADINDL1.jpg

Biology and ecology
Radionaspis indica is bisexual (Beardsley, 1966). Its biology and ecology have not been studied. Crawlers are the primary dispersal stage and move to new areas of the plant or are dispersed by wind or animal contact. Mortality due to abiotic factors is high in this stage. Dispersal of sessile adults and eggs occurs through human transport of infested plant material.

Economic impact
Radionaspis indica has assumed greater importance on mango in USA (Florida) in recent years (Peña, 1994).

Detection and inspection methods
Examine the bark of mango and other species of Mangifera for minute, convex and seed-like brown scale covers, each compressed at the tip and covered by a cottony wax-like secretion; with terminal first instar exuviae RADINDL1.jpg .

Natural enemies
The natural enemies of R. indica have not been studied.

See Radionaspis indica distribution.

Microscopic examination of slide-mounted adult females is required for authoritative identification to species.

Radionaspis indica probably originated from the Indian subcontinent, but has been spread more widely due to the transport of infested planting material. It has not been recorded from Europe, most of Africa, much of Asia, South America, Australia, or from most of the Pacific islands.

India: present, no further details (Nakahara, 1982)
Java: present, no further details (Nakahara, 1982)

Cape Verde Is: Santiago I. (Fernandes, 1999)
Senegal: present, no further details (Nakahara, 1982)

Western Hemisphere
Cuba: present, no further details (Nakahara, 1982)
Dominican Republic: present, no further details (Nakahara, 1982)
Jamaica: present, no further details (Nakahara, 1982)
Panama: present, no further details (Nakahara, 1982)
Puerto Rico: present, no further details (Nakahara, 1982)
Tortola: present, no further details (Nakahara, 1982)
Florida: present, no further details (Nakahara, 1982; Peña, 1994)
Hawaii: present, no further details (Nakahara, 1981)

Palau: present (Beardsley, 1966)