Appearance in life
Scale cover of adult female circular, flat to slightly convex, with central or subcentral exuviae. Scale cover of immature male similar to female but smaller, slender, elongate with apical exuviae.
Adult female not pupillarial; body subcircular to broadly pyriform, usually membranous except for thickened cuticle in parts of pygidium, but in mature females prosoma may become slightly sclerotized. Pygidium with a pattern of dorsal sclerotization; with 2 pairs of unilobulate marginal lobes; third lobes represented by minute points only, or absent entirely. Lobes parallel to longitudinal axis of body, or only slightly convergent; median lobes each elongate or only slightly wider than long, exceeding second lobes; each lobe heavily sclerotized, with a basal sclerosis extending into the pygidium from its base. Second lobe often less sclerotized than median lobe, sometimes pointed or notched at outer edge; paraphyses absent. Dorsal marginal setae at outer basal corner of each lobe flagellate, not longer than median lobe. Well-developed, fringed plates present, as long as or slightly longer than lobes; 2 present between median lobes, 2 between median and second lobes, 3 between second lobe and position of third lobe, and sometimes present lateral to each third lobe as far forward as fifth abdominal segment, plates beyond third lobe often simple. Anus oval, usually smaller than median lobe, situated about one-third length of pygidium from apex; vulva situated near centre of pygidium, usually in anterior half. Ducts with oval orifices present in a marginal zone on both surfaces of pygidium and preygidium, these ducts quite slender, of moderate length; 1 (occasionally 2) marginal ducts present between median lobes, and 1 or 2 between median and second lobes; submarginal ducts usually arranged in intersegmental rows or series, at least between segments VIII and VII, VII and VI and VI and V on each side, less neatly arranged further anteriorly. Preygidium with submarginal ducts present, the marginal cuticle of segments II to V thickened and more or less crenulate; without plates or duct tubercles. Perivulvar pores present in 4 groups. Stigmatic disc pores absent, but each spiracle associated with about 4-8 ventral microducts; antennae widely spaced, each bearing one seta and sometimes with a sclerotized spur.