Berlese and Leonardi, 1896
Appearance in life
Scale cover of adult female circular, flat, usually not dark coloured, with central exuviae. Scale cover of immature male similar to female but smaller, oval with subcentral exuviae.
Adult female not pupillarial; body broadly pyriform to strongly reniform, with prosoma becoming enlarged and produced postero-laterally into lobes, and highly sclerotized, in mature specimens of most species. This reniform shape characterises most members of the genera Aonidiella and Africonidia (Ben-Dov, 1990a), although Aspidiotus macfarlanei is also reniform (Williams and Watson, 1988). Prepygidial marginal spurs absent in most species. Pygidium sclerotized, sometimes with distinctive scars, scleroses and apophyses, often becoming retracted between lateral lobes of prosoma. Pygidium with 3 pairs of well-developed unilobulate lobes, fourth lobes sometimes represented by small points. Lobes parallel to longitudinal axis of body, graduated in size, usually with lateral notches at least on outer edges; median lobes each as long as or longer than wide, heavily sclerotized. Second and third lobes well sclerotized; slender paraphyses arising from bases of median to third lobes, each usually shorter than the adjacent lobe. Plates as long as or slightly longer than lobes, those between the lobes always fringed; 2 present between median lobes, 2 between median and second lobes, 3 between second and third lobes, and often present lateral to each third lobe as far forward as fourth lobe or dorsal marginal seta of fifth abdominal segment; plates beyond third lobe either fringed or each with a single long, fleshy process. Anus oval to elliptical, smaller than median lobe, situated at about the posterior fifth of length of pygidium from its apex; vulva situated at, or slightly anterior to, centre of pygidium. Dorsal macroducts long and quite slender; usually 1 marginal duct between median lobes, 1 between median and second lobes, 1 between second and third lobes and 2 between third and fourth lobes on either side; submarginal ducts usually arranged in 3 distinct poriferous furrows between segments VIII and VII, VII and VI and VI and V on each side. A few prepygidial marginal ducts present in some species, but difficult to see in mature females. Perivulvar pores present in 2-5 groups, or absent. Stigmatic disc pores absent; antennae situated fairly near mid-line, each bearing one seta and sometimes with a sclerotized spur.